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    Author(s): Russell S. Walters; L. R. Auchmoody
    Date: 1993
    Source: In: Gillespie, Andrew R.; Parker, George R.; Pope, Phillip E.; Rink, George: eds. Proceedings of the 9th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-161. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 271-280
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: North Central Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (2.55 MB)

    Description

    When harvested, upland oak forests of northwestern Pennsylvania generally regenerate to new forests dominated by non-oak species. In 1988, the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station began to identify and learn to manipulate factors that limit the establishment and development of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings in second-generation stands on high-quality sites. The study includes three replications located within the Moshanon State Forest and four replications within the Allegheny National Forest on the unglaciated section of the Allegheny Plateau in northwestern Pennsylvania. Each replication includes six plots in which two each were cut to 40 and 60% relative density and two left uncut. One plot of each overstory density level was fenced to exclude deer and one-half of every plot was herbicided to control herbaceous cover and competing hardwoods. The major causes of regeneration failure in oak stands are low numbers and/or small size of oak advance reproduction. The small number of natural red oak seedlings results from infrequent seed crops and destruction of acorns by insects, deer, and small mammals. Deer, small mammals, and insects contribute to slow development and mortality of established seedlings.

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    Citation

    Walters, Russell S.; Auchmoody, L. R. 1993. Factors limiting northern red oak reproduction in Pennsylvania. In: Gillespie, Andrew R.; Parker, George R.; Pope, Phillip E.; Rink, George: eds. Proceedings of the 9th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-161. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 271-280

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