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    Osage-orange, a small tree with a number of unique characteristics, played an important role in the settlement of the prairies. One of the more significant contributions was in the use of the species for hedges. The thorny, low-spreading crowns provided excellent fencing when properly main tamed. This use, plus its later used in skelterbelts, exert a continuing influence on the environment of the Middle West and the Great Plains. Osage-orange grows well on a wide range of sites and is a good candidate for planting on mine spoils and other disturbed sites. A thornless variety does well in difficult urban conditions.

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    Barnett, James P.; Burton, James D. 1997. Osage-orange: a pioneering stewardship species. Tree Planters' Notes 48(3/4):81-86.

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