Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Jefferey M. Warren; H. Lee Allen; Fitzgerald L. Booker
    Date: 1999
    Source: Tree Physiology, 19, 655-663
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (207 KB)


    Southern pine beetles and associated pathogenic fungi represent the largest biotic threat to pine forests in the southeastern USA. The two primary defensive mechanisms of the tree to the beetle-fungal complex are the primary oleoresin flow and the concentrations of preformed and induced secondary compounds. We compared oleoresin flow and concentrations of phloem nutrients, soluble sugars, starch, total phenolics and proanthocyanidins in Pinus taeda L. trees in fertilized and control plots in the Sandhills region of North Carolina. Four blocks of 10 trees per treatment were sampled on five dates from May to November 1995. Phloem nitrogen and potassium concentrations were elevated in trees on fertilized plots, whereas phloem calcium concentrations were decreased. Fertilization significantly enhanced (l0-20%) concentrations of phloem phenolics and proanthocyanidins. In contrast, phloem soluble sugars and starch concentrations were up to 30% lower in fertilized trees than in control trees. Increased phenolic concentrations and lower nonstructural carbohydrates should correlate with reduced tissue palatability and decreased pathogen susceptibility in fertilized trees; however, resin flows were significantly lower (30-100%) in fertilized trees compared with control trees, which may facilitate pine bark beetle establishment. Furthermore, fertilization-induced increases in phloem nitrogen concentration may be more important than tissue carbohydrate or phenolic content in determining tissue palatability.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Warren, Jefferey M.; Allen, H. Lee; Booker, Fitzgerald L. 1999. Mineral Nutrition, Resin Flow and Phloem Phystochemistry in Loblolly Pine. Tree Physiology, 19, 655-663


    carbohydrates, defense, Dendroctonus frontalis, nitrogen, nutrition, Ophiostoma minus, phenolics, Pinus taeda, proanthocyanidins, secondary compounds, southern pine beetle

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page