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    As tree programs are new to the SIP process, "to facilitate Federal approval of an emerging or voluntary measure States are encouraged to work with their EPA regional ofice during the development process". Programs to increase canopy cover in urban areas can achieve many benefits. They can help improve air and water quality, as well as other factors related to human health and environmental quality. They can be incorporated within State Implementation Plans under "Emerging" and "Voluntary" measures to help meet or sustain clean air standards. They will impact the local and regional environment regardless of where they are implemented in the United States; however, they are only applicable for SIP credit in areas designated as non-attainment for ozone where traditional measures can not meet attainment, and in areas designated as SIP maintenance areas. They will potentially increase in effect and credit through time as tree canopies grow.

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    Nowak, Dr. David J. 2005. Strategic tree planting as an EPA encouraged pollutant reduction strategy: how urban trees can obtain credit in state implementation plans. Sylvan Communities 23-27

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