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White ash (Fraxinus americana L.) survival and growth in unmanaged upland forestsAuthor(s): Jeffery S. Ward
Source: In: Pallardy, Stephen G.; Cecich, Robert A.; Garrett, H. Gene; Johnson, Paul S., eds. Proceedings of the 11th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-188. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 220-230
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Station: North Central Research Station
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DescriptionCrown class and diameter of 704 white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) > 0.5 inches dbh have been monitored at 10-yr intervals since 1927. Nominal stand age was 25 years in 1927. Although the density of white ash in the upper canopy declined from 14/acre to 3/acre between stand ages 25 through 85, the proportion of the upper canopy comprised by white ash only fell from 5.2% to 3.6%, respectively. In contrast, both absolute and relative density of lower canopy fell precipitously between stand ages 25 to 85, from 53/acre (4.5%) to 3/acre (0.5%). White ash ingrowth has never exceeded 2.6 trees/acre/decade. Survival and growth of white ash in 25- to 85-yr-old stands were influenced by crown class and disturbance. Mortality was negatively correlated with crown class. Mortality of suppressed trees was 3-5x higher than for trees in the upper canopy. Mortality and diameter growth were independent of tree diameter when crown class effects were removed. Over the 60-yr period, diameter growth for upper canopy, intermediate, and suppressed crown classes averaged 0.8", 0.4", and 0.2"/decade, respectively. Because of low recruitment and lower canopy survival, white ash will likely decline in these forests without periodic disturbances.
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CitationWard, Jeffery S. 1997. White ash (Fraxinus americana L.) survival and growth in unmanaged upland forests. In: Pallardy, Stephen G.; Cecich, Robert A.; Garrett, H. Gene; Johnson, Paul S., eds. Proceedings of the 11th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-188. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 220-230
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