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    Author(s): David S. Larrick; Todd W. Bowersox; Gerald L. Storm; Walter M. Tzilkowski
    Date: 1997
    Source: In: Pallardy, Stephen G.; Cecich, Robert A.; Garrett, H. Gene; Johnson, Paul S., eds. Proceedings of the 11th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-188. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 349
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: North Central Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (175.63 KB)

    Description

    Overstory competition and foraging by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and small mammals are cited as reasons for regeneration failure in mixed-oak stands of Pennsylvania. At Gettysburg National Military Park, deer densities are high (>0.6 deer/ha), and the mixed-oak woodlots were lacking in seedling- and sapling-sized natural oak regeneration. To promote restoration of the woodlots to Civil War condition, we examined the effects of canopy conditions and browsing by deer and small mammals on the survival and growth of planted northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) acorns, seedlings, and saplings. In 1992, three study woodlots were selected as representative of the range of conditions in the Park, including high deer densities. Within each woodlot, three 0.20 ha circular canopy treatments were assigned. Each treatment was replicated three times within each woodlot. Treatments were closed canopy and partial and complete openings in the canopy. Within each canopy treatment unit, two paired fenced and unfenced plots were established, for a total of 18 pairs per woodlot. At each pair of plots, 40 acorns, 8 bare-root seedlings (about 0.3 m in height) and 6 bare-root saplings (> 1.0 m in height) were planted. Survival and height were measured at the end of the second growing season after overstory treatment.

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    Citation

    Larrick, David S.; Bowersox, Todd W.; Storm, Gerald L.; Tzilkowski, Walter M. 1997. Two-year survival and growth of artificial northern red oak regeneration at Gettysburg National Military Park. In: Pallardy, Stephen G.; Cecich, Robert A.; Garrett, H. Gene; Johnson, Paul S., eds. Proceedings of the 11th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-188. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 349

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