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    Author(s): M. E. Ostry; B. Ellingson; D. Seekins; W. Ruckheim
    Date: 2003
    Source: In: Van Sambeek, J. W.; Dawson, Jeffery O.; Ponder Jr., Felix; Loewenstein, Edward F.; Fralish, James S., eds. Proceedings of the 13th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-234. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station: 551-555
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: North Central Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (53.02 KB)

    Description

    Butternut is a short-lived tree and is declining in numbers for a variety of reasons ranging from changing land use to aging forest stands, seed predation and lack of suitable conditions for reproduction. However, the major reason for the dramatic decrease in butternut populations throughout its range in North America is the lethal canker disease caused by the fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum that is believed to be an exotic pathogen. The fungus has killed up to 80 percent of the trees in some states and is threatening butternut's survival as a viable species in North America.

    Publication Notes

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Ostry, M. E.; Ellingson, B.; Seekins, D.; Ruckheim, W. 2003. The need for silvicultural practices and collection of butternut germplasm for species conservation. In: Van Sambeek, J. W.; Dawson, Jeffery O.; Ponder Jr., Felix; Loewenstein, Edward F.; Fralish, James S., eds. Proceedings of the 13th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-234. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station: 551-555

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