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    Author(s): David Alan Graefe; Hans Vogelsong
    Date: 2009
    Source: In: Klenosky, David B.; Fisher, Cherie LeBlanc, eds. Proceedings of the 2008 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium; 2008 March 30 - April 1; Bolton Landing, NY. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-42. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 210-215.
    Publication Series: Other
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (210.26 KB)

    Description

    Outdoor recreation researchers have typically defined "crowding" as a negative evaluation of the social atmosphere of an area. According to normative theory, individuals have standards (norms) regarding the appropriateness of different levels and types of recreational use. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of visitor characteristics on the formation of encounter norms and perceived crowding levels at Cape Lookout National Seashore off the coast of North Carolina. Results suggest that visitor expectations, vehicle use, and visitor hometown population density were significantly related to perceived crowding levels. Implications for managing crowding expectations are discussed.

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    Citation

    Graefe, David Alan; Vogelsong, Hans. 2009. Crowding at Cape Lookout National Seashore: an examination of the influence of visitor characteristics on encounter norms and perceived crowding. In: Klenosky, David B.; Fisher, Cherie LeBlanc, eds. Proceedings of the 2008 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium; 2008 March 30 - April 1; Bolton Landing, NY. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-42. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 210-215.

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