Skip to Main Content
The evidence for Allee effectsAuthor(s): Andrew M. Kramer; Brian Dennis; Andrew M. Liebhold; John M. Drake
Source: Population Ecology. 51: 341-354.
Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
Station: Northern Research Station
PDF: View PDF (487.74 KB)
DescriptionAllee effects are an important dynamic phenomenon believed to be manifested in several population processes, notably extinction and invasion. Though widely cited in these contexts, the evidence for their strength and prevalence has not been critically evaluated. We review results from 91 studies on Allee effects in natural animal populations. We focus on empirical signatures that are used or might be used to detect Allee effects, the types of data in which Allee effects are evident, the empirical support for the occurrence of critical densities in natural populations, and differences among taxa both in the presence of Allee effects and primary causal mechanisms. We find that conclusive examples are known from Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Chordata, including three classes of vertebrates, and are most commonly documented to result from mate limitation in invertebrates and from predator?prey interactions in vertebrates.
- Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
- Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
- During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
- Please contact Sharon Hobrla, email@example.com if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationKramer, Andrew M.; Dennis, Brian; Liebhold, Andrew M.; Drake, John M. 2009. The evidence for Allee effects. Population Ecology. 51: 341-354.
Keywordscritical density, depensation, inverse density dependence, mate limitation, predator satiation, positive density dependence
- Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine - an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy
- The role of Allee effects in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), invasions
- Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.)
XML: View XML