Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Robert A. HaackToby R. Petrice
    Date: 2009
    Source: Journal of Economic Entomology. 102(3): 1075-1084.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (110.81 KB)


    Wood packaging material (WPM) is a major pathway for international movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. ISPM 15, the first international standard for treating WPM, was adopted in 2002 and first implemented in the United States in 2006. ISPM 15 allows bark to remain on WPM after treatment, raising concerns that insects could infest after treatment, especially if bark were present. We conducted field studies to evaluate insect infestation of green logs and lumber with varying amounts of bark after heat treatment. In a log study, Cerambycidae and Scolytinae (ambrosia beetles and bark beetles) readily infested and developed in logs with bark after heat treatment. In a lumber study, Cerambycidae and bark beetles laid eggs in all sizes of bark patches tested (≈25, 100, 250, and 1,000cm2) after heat treatment but did not infest control or heat-treated lumber without bark. Cerambycidae completed development only in boards with bark patches of 1,000 cm2, whereas bark beetles completed development on patches of 100, 250, and 1,000 cm2. Survival of bark beetles was greater in square patches (10 by 10 cm) versus rectangular patches (2.5 by 40 cm) of the same surface area (100cm2). In surveys at six U.S. ports in 2006, 9.4% of 5,945 ISPM 15-marked WPM items contained bark, and 1.2% of 563 ISPM 15-marked WPM items with bark contained live insects of quarantine significance under the bark. It was not possible to determine whether the presence of live insects represented treatment failure or infestation after treatment.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Haack, Robert A.; Petrice, Toby R. 2009. Bark- and wood-borer colonization of logs and lumber after heat treatment to ISPM 15 specifications: the role of residual bark. Journal of Economic Entomology. 102(3): 1075-1084.


    Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Scolytinae, heat treatment

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page