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    Forests in the Ozark Highlands underwent widespread oak decline affected by severe droughts in 1999-2000. In this study, the differential normalized difference water index was calculated to detect crown dieback. A multi-factor risk rating system was built to map risk levels of stands. As a quick response to drought, decline in 2000 mostly occurred in stands at low to medium risk, which often recovered within a few years. Decline in 2003, as longer-term response to drought, dominated in stands at medium to high risk. This study demonstrates that remote sensing can be applied to predict oak decline and to mitigate damage before another stressor event occurs.

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    Wang, Cuizhen; He, Hong S.; Kabrick, John M. 2008. A remote sensing-assisted risk rating study to predict oak decline and recovery in the Missouri Ozark Highlands, USA. GIScience and Remote Sensing. 45(4): 406-425.

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