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    Two-year growth and mortality rates were analyzed for 254 black locust, 199 southern magnolia and 27 London plane trees planted along a major boulevard extending from southern Berkeley through western inner-city Oakland, California. After the first two years, 34% of these newly planted trees were either dead or removed. The average annual mortality rate was 19% with no significant difference in mortality among the species or between years. Areas of lower socio-economic status exhibited the most tree mortality with pecent mortality most strongly correlated with percent unemployment (r=0.78). Trees with adjacent land uses of apartments and public greenspaces had significantly high mortality while trees next to single family houses and rapid transit stations exhibited low mortality.

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    Nowak, David J.; McBride, Joe R.; Beatty, Russell A. 1990. Newly planted street tree growth and mortality. Journal of Arboriculture. 16(5): 124-130.

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