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    The history of Oakland, California's urban forest was researched to determine events that could influence future urban forests. Vegetation in Oakland has changed drastically from a preurbanized area with approximately 2% tree cover to a present tree cover of 19%. Species composition of trees was previously dominated by coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California bay (Umbellularia californica), and coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and is currently dominated by blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus), Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and coast live oak. Many forces throughout the history of Oakland have shaped the current urban forest structure. These forces include the gold rush of the 1840's, the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, massive afforestation of the early 1900's, and various fires from 1923 to 1991. These historical forces and the impact they had on Oakland's urban forest are explored. Future forces that can alter any urban forest are presented and discussed.

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    Nowak, David J. 1993. Historical vegetation change in Oakland and its implications for urban forest management. Journal of Arboriculture. 19(5): 313-319.

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