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    Urban forests are complex ecosystems created by the interaction of anthropogenic and natural processes. One key to better management of these systems is to understand urban forest structure and its relationship to forest functions. Through sampling and inventories, urban foresters often obtain structural information (e.g., numbers, location, size, and condition) on street- and/or park-tree populations to aid management. However, these public trees compose only a small portion of the urban forest.

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    Nowak, David J. 1994. Understanding the structure. Journal of Forestry. 92(10): 42-46.

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