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A social ecology approach to understanding urban ecosystems and landscapesAuthor(s): J. Morgan Grove; Karen E. Hinson; Robert J. Northrop
Source: In: Berkowitz, Alan R.; Nilon, Charles H.; Hollweg, Karen S., eds. Understanding Urban Ecosystems; A New Frontier for Science and Education: New York, NY: Springer-Verlag New York. 167-186.
Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
Station: Northeastern Research Station
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DescriptionThe shape and dynamics of cities are the result of physical, biological, and social forces. We include the term dynamic to emphasize that cities change over time and are the result of both idiosyncratic events and dominant trends. To begin to understand the patterns and processes of cities, we approach the idiosyncratic and dominant - whether it is physical, biological, or social - within an historic context.
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CitationGrove, J. Morgan; Hinson, Karen E.; Northrop, Robert J. 2003. A social ecology approach to understanding urban ecosystems and landscapes. In: Berkowitz, Alan R.; Nilon, Charles H.; Hollweg, Karen S., eds. Understanding Urban Ecosystems; A New Frontier for Science and Education: New York, NY: Springer-Verlag New York. 167-186.
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