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    The effects of variable width of streamside management zones (25, 50, 75, and 100 ft) (SMZs) and removal level of trees (10%, 30%, and 50% of basal area) on production and cost of implementing SMZs in central Appalachian hardwood forests were simulated by using a computer model. Harvesting operations were performed on an 80-year-old generated natural hardwood stand with a manual harvesting system of chainsaw felling and cable skidder extraction. Two skidding patterns using one landing with a stream crossing and two landings without a stream crossing were examined in the study. The hourly felling production with SMZs was 3.21 cunit (100 ft?) with an average unit cost of $9.04 per cunit. The productivity of conventional cable skidding with SMZs was 2.59 cunit per productive machine hour (PMH) and the unit cost averaged $31.12/cunit. Results indicated that felling with SMZs was 13 percent less productive and 15 percent more expensive than the felling operations without SMZs, while the skidder's productivity with SMZs was 8 percent lower and its unit cost was 9 percent higher than without SMZs. SMZ width and removal level did significantly affect the felling and skidding operations. The opportunity cost was indicated as a major cost component for implementing SMZs in central hardwood forests, which accounted for 27 percent of the total on-board cost.

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    Li, Yaoxiang; LeDoux, Chris B.; Wang, Jingxin. 2006. An economic assessment of implementing streamside management zones in central Appalachian hardwood forests. Forest Products Journal 56(10):73-79

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