Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): David J. NowakDaniel E. Crane; Jack C. Stevens; Robert E. Hoehn; Jeffrey T. Walton; Jerry Bond
    Date: 2008
    Source: Aboriculture & Urban Forestry. 34(6): 347-358.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (132.38 KB)


    To properly manage urban forests, it is essential to have data on this important resource. An efficient means to obtain this information is to randomly sample urban areas. To help assess the urban forest structure (e.g., number of trees, species composition, tree sizes, health) and several functions (e.g., air pollution removal, carbon storage and sequestration), the Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) model was developed. Data collection variables and model methods are detailed and urban forest structure results are compared among 14 United States cities with average tree density ranging between 22.5 trees/ha (9.1 trees/ac) in Casper, Wyoming, U.S. to 275.8 trees/ha (111.6 trees/ac) in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S. Advantages and disadvantages of this ground-based method of assessing urban forest structure, functions, and values are discussed.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Nowak, David J.; Crane, Daniel E.; Stevens, Jack C.; Hoehn, Robert E.; Walton, Jeffrey T.; Bond, Jerry. 2008. A ground-based method of assessing urban forest structure and ecosystem services. Aboriculture & Urban Forestry. 34(6): 347-358.


    air pollution removal, carbon sequestration, tree measurement, urban forest monitoring, urban forest sampling

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page