Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Ann E. Hajek; Michael L. McManus; Italo Delalibera Junior
    Date: 2007
    Source: Biological Control. 41: 1?13.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (215.16 KB)


    Compared with parasitoids and predators, classical biological control programs targeting arthropod pests have used pathogens and nematodes very little. However, some pathogens and nematodes that have been introduced have become established and provided excellent control and have been introduced in increasing numbers of areas over decades, often after distributions of pests have increased. We summarize 131 introductions, the majority of which have occurred since 1950. The most commonly introduced microorganisms have been fungi, viruses and nematodes, although microsporidia, bacteria and oomycetes have also been introduced; among these groups, viruses were the most successful in establishing followed by nematodes, fungi and microsporidia. All major orders of insects and prostigmatid mites have been targeted and in 63.6% of the programs the pests being targeted were invasive species and not native. Pathogens and nematodes yielded excellent success in establishment against sawflies and wood wasps (100% of programs) and 40-48% establishment among other host orders. Classical biological control has been used for long-term control of arthropod pests on islands almost as much as in mainland areas. It has been used most frequently in perennial systems and highest rates of establishment of arthropod pathogens and insect parasitic nematodes were documented from forests (63.0%) and tree crops (66.7%). One explanation for the low number of releases of arthropod pathogens and insect parasitic nematodes has been confusing and difficult regulations but recent changes and institution of the FAO's Code of Conduct is expected to improve scientists? ability to introduce microbial natural enemies for classical biological control.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Hajek, Ann E.; McManus, Michael L.; Delalibera Junior, Italo. 2007. A review of introductions of pathogens and nematodes for classical biological control of insects and mites. Biological Control. 41: 1?13.


    entomopathogens, microbial control, pest management, introduction biological control, invasive species

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page