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    Freight transportation is an important pathway for the introduction and dissemination of exotic forest insects (EFI). Identifying the final destination of imports is critical in determining the likelihood of EFI establishment. We analyzed the use of regional freight transport information to characterize risk of urban and periurban areas to EFI introductions. Specifc objectives were to 1) approximate the final distribution of selected imports among urban areas of the United States, 2) characterize the final distribution of imports in terms of their spatial aggregation and dominant world region of origin, and 3) assess the effect of the final distribution of imports on the level of risk to urban and periurban forests from EFI. Freight pattern analyses were conducted for three categories of imports whose products or packaging materials are associated with EFI: wood products, nonmetallic mineral products, and machinery.

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    Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Haack, Robert A.; Adelaja, Adesoji O. 2009. Freight transportation and the potential for invasions of exotic insects in urban and periurban forests of the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology. 102(1): 237-246.


    nonindigenous species, invasive species, freight analysis framework, exurban forest, wildland-urban interface

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