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    Primary roots from seeds, sucker roots in aspens, and adventitious roots (ARs) in poplars and their hybrids are prevalent within the genus Populus. Two AR types develop on hardwood cuttings: (i) lateral roots from either preformed or induced primordia along the length of the cutting and (ii) basal roots from callus at the base of the cutting in response to wounding imposed by processing the parent shoot into propagules. Adventitious rooting is a key trait in Populus tree improvement programs because of the need for inexpensive plantation establishment with genotypes that perform well across heterogeneous environments or are better adapted to local site conditions. The objective of this chapter is to describe how selecting Populus with ability to develop both AR types can be used to provide environmental services necessary for long-term ecosystem sustainability across multiple temporal and spatial scales, including as carbon (C) sequestration and environmental remediation, fiber for the paper industry, and energy feedstocks such as cellulosics for ethanol and biomass for electricity.

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    Zalesny, Ronald S., Jr.; Zalesny, Jill A. 2009. Selecting Populus with different adventitious root types for environmental benefits, fiber, and energy. In: Niemi, K.; Seagel, C.; eds. Adventitious root formation of forest trees and horticultural plants - from genes to applications. Chapter 18. Research Signpost: 359-384.

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