Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Eugene Shoulders
    Date: 1976
    Source: Res. Note SO-218. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 5 p.
    Publication Series: Research Note (RN)
    Station: Southern Forest Experiment Station
    PDF: View PDF  (151 KB)


    Slash pine may absorb nutrients and water best in spring and early summer because soil moisture, soil aeration, and temperature are apparently optimum at this time. One-year-old slash pine seedlings maintained at a high oxygen level grew about 1% times as many roots as were produced at a low oxygen level. No other environmental conditions significantly influenced root growth during the 12-day test period. High oxygen level plant roots had long silvery-white tips, which L graded gradually to cream, tan, and finally light brown near the base of the root segments. In contrast, new roots of low oxygen level plants were brown or tan to within a few centimeters of their tips. At 22° C, low oxygen level plants absorbed 21 percent less water, 53 percent less phosphorus, and 54 percent less magnesium at the end than at the beginning of the It-day observation period. In contrast, high oxygen level plants absorbed 9 percent more water, 61 percent more phosphorus, 22 percent more potassium, and 117 percent more magnesium daily at the end than at the beginning of the 12 days. At the low oxygen level, the 22° C seedlings calcium absorption increased 152 percent by the second day butodeclined thereafter. Trends were about the same at 16° C and 28° C, but most differences increased with increasing temperature. To maintain good growth rates slash pines may require more nutrients in inadequately drained and aerated soils than in well drained soils. Fertilization can possibly substitute for drainage on some sites because poor root aeration may reduce the plant's ability to absorb water and nutrients.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Shoulders, Eugene. 1976. Poor Aeration Curtails Slash Pine Root Growth and Nutrient Uptake. Res. Note SO-218. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 5 p.


    Pinus elliottii, temperature, light intensity, root aeration, solution culture, pine nutrition, absorption of water, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page