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    Stand structure and dynamics were evaluated in mixed red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - conifer forests of southeast Alaska. We assessed stand development, tree density, total basal area, diameter distribution of live and dead trees, height distribution of live trees, and mean diameter of all and largest conifers in 40-year-old red alder - conifer stands that developed following logging. Forty-five plots were established in nine stands sampled across a compositional range of 0%-86% alder. Alder height growth was initially rapid then slowed considerably, whereas conifer height growth was initially slow then rapidly increased with conifers now being 4-9 m taller than associated alders. Most alder diameters were 20-30 cm and conifer diameters were more variable with numerous small (3-10 cm) and a few large (>25 cm) trees. Total stand basal area significantly decreased (p = 0.013) with increasing proportions of alder, but density of live and dead trees was not closely associated with alder composition. More than 60% of all dead trees died standing regardless of size or species. Overall, these mixed red alder - conifer stands provided more heterogeneous structures than pure conifer stands, with more even diameter distributions, multiple canopy layers, and similar numbers of large diameter conifers.

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    Deal, Robert L.; Hennon, Paul E.; Orlikowska, Ewa H.; D''Amore, David V. 2004. Stand dynamics of mixed red alder-conifer forests of southeast Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 34: 969-980

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