Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Stan LebowCherilyn Hatfield; Douglas Crawford; Bessie Woodward
    Date: 2003
    Source: Proceedings : ninety-ninth annual meeting of the American Wood-Preservers' Association ... Boston, Massachusetts, April 27-30, 2003 : Volume 99. Selma, Ala. : American Wood-Preservers' Association: Pages 142-149
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (144 KB)

    Description

    Limitations on the use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) have heightened interest in use of arsenic-free copper-based alternatives. For decades, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory has been evaluating several of these systems in stake plots. Southern Pine 38- by 89- by 457-mm (1.5- by 3.5- by 18-inch) stakes were treated with varying concentrations of acid copper chromate (ACC), ammoniacal copper borate (ACB), or acid copper formate (CF) and buried to one-half their length in plots within the Harrison Experimental Forest in Mississippi. Stakes treated with acidic formulations (ACC and CF) generally performed well at copper oxide retentions above 1.8 kg/m3 (0.11 lb/ft3), as did ACB-treated stakes containing 3.5 kg/m3 (0.22 lb/ft 3 ) CuO. However, even at retentions where median ratings and the average index of condition remained high for over 20 years, individual stakes occasionally failed in less than 10 years. The results suggest that occasional early failures caused by copper-tolerant fungi may be a concern for use of these treatments in ground contact.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Lebow, Stan; Hatfield, Cherilyn; Crawford, Douglas; Woodward, Bessie. 2003. Long-term stake evaluations of waterborne copper systems. Proceedings : ninety-ninth annual meeting of the American Wood-Preservers'' Association ... Boston, Massachusetts, April 27-30, 2003 : Volume 99. Selma, Ala. : American Wood-Preservers'' Association: Pages 142-149

    Keywords

    Stake tests, long term, acid copper chromate, ammoniacal copper borate, copper formate

    Related Search


    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page
https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21064