Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Ronald C. Schmidtling
    Date: 1999
    Source: Proceedings of the 25th Biennial Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (134 KB)


    Early foresters had a sense that using local seed sources was the best for afforestation, although this was often based more on intuition than experience. Non-local planting stock has often been used in-the past. In the reforestation carried out by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930's, for instance, an effort was made to use native seed sources, but nursery records show that the source of seed was sometimes disregarded when local stock was not available. A similar situation now exists in the southeastern US, where demand for planting stock has exceeded supply, mainly because of widespread wildfires in the south associated with drought. When seedling supplies are short, and non-local sources are available, it is very tempting to use this stock. Indeed, provenance tests have shown that non-local sources may not always be the best. Results from provenance tests (Wells and Wakeley 1966) have been used to justify massive movement of seed sources especially in loblolly pine. Tremendous quantities of seedlings originating in Livingston Parish, Louisiana and east Texas have been planted in Georgia, Alabama, and north Florida because they are resistant to fusiform rust (Wells 1985). In the other direction, great quantities of seedlings from the Coastal Plain of the Carolinas have been planted in Arkansas, because they greatly surpass the local sources in early growth, although there is increased risk for crop failure (Lambeth et al 1984). There is always short-term risk associated with planting trees, but long-term risk should also be considered. This could be especially important in the federal Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), where established plantings may not be intensively managed, and the planted forest stands will be left to develop naturally. Guidelines for seed transfer of the southern pines have been previously published (Lantz and Kraus 1987). These guidelines need to be up-dated in light of more recent research results.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Schmidtling, Ronald C. 1999. Revising the Seed Zones for Southern Pines. Proceedings of the 25th Biennial Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page