Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Floyd Bridgwater; Tom Kubisiak; Tom Byram; Steve Mckeand
    Date: 2004
    Source: South. J. Appl. For. 29(2): 80-87
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.44 MB)


    In the southeastern USA, fusiform rust resistant loblolly and slash pines may be deployed as 1) ulked seed orchard mixes. 2) half-sibling (sib) family mixtures. 3) single half-sib families. 4) full-sib cross seeds or as 6) clones of individual genotypes. These deployment types are respectively greater genetic gains from higher selection intensity. Currently, bulked seed orchard mixes are deployed by all state organizations and many smaller companies, but about half the 1.1 billion loblolly and slash pines deployed annually are planted in half-sib family blocks. The most aggressive landowners plant virtually all of their land with a small number of half-sib families. full-sib families and/or clones are currently planted on a small fraction of the total are regenerated, but research and development seeks to make the deployment of full-sib families and clones economical to increase the genetic gains from applied tree improvement programs. Resistance to fusiform rustcurrently being deployed is likely due to resistance based on both major genes and genes of small, cumulative effects. However, major genes for resistance to fusiform rust have been discovered using molecular genetic techniques, and deployment strategies are currently being developed. "Boom and bust" cycles of pathogens on other crops when major genes were deployed against them create concerns that these same problems might arise when deploying major genes for resistance against fusiform rust. We assessed the risk that fusiform rust might overcome one to few major genes for resistance if they are deployed widely and strategies to mitigate the risk that this will occur. We concluded that the deployment stragegies currently in widest use (bulked seed orchard seedlings and half-sib family blocks) robustly resist fusiform rust infection. Plantations are probably sufficiently genetically buffered to present little risk of cataclysmic failure, as current resistance is likely to be based on both major and minor genes. furthermore, these same deployment strategies are likely to provide robust protection against risk factors other than fusiform rust. We concluded that deploying pine cultivars with known genes for major resistance to fusiform rust in regions where their associated virulence genes are absent or in low frequencies is a practical near term strategy and that deploying a mosaic of different resistance genes may mitigate the presumed greater risk of deployment full-sib family blocks or clones.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Bridgwater, Floyd; Kubisiak, Tom; Byram, Tom; Mckeand, Steve. 2004. Risk assessment with current deployment strategies for fusiform rust-resistant loblolly and slash pines. South. J. Appl. For. 29(2): 80-87


    Pinus taeda, Pinus elliottii, Cornartium quercuum (Berk.) Miyabe ex Shirai F. sp. fusiforme, Fusarium subglutinas f. sp. pini. deployment stragegy, risk management.

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page