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    Author(s): John W. Clarke; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman
    Date: 2005
    Source: Forest Products Journal. 55(12): 83-88
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (178.61 KB)


    The pallet repair industry has been growing at significant rates in the United States. It has been estimated that the repair industry received 299 million pallets in 2001, and a majority went back into the marketplace as repaired or remanufactured pallets. Many question how well these pallets perform when compared to new pallets. The purpose of this research was to provide a benchmark for the relative performance (strength, stiffness, and durability) of new, repaired, and remanufactured 48- by 40-inch, three-stringer, partial four-way, flush, non-reversible, Grocery Manufacturers of America (GMA)-type pallets. GMA-type pallets were selected because they are the most common wood pallets repaired and remanufactured in the United States. The pallets in this study were sampled in 1995 from locations throughout the United States. Repaired pallets were separated into three grades. Performance tests showed differences between new, repaired, and remanufactured pallets. Bending strength and stiffness spanning pallet stringers declined and variation increased as repair quality decreased. This was expected because repair quality is segregated according to stringer repair level. There was little difference in the bending strength and stiffness of new and used GMA-style pallets spanning the deckboards. Stringer repair had a small effect on performance when spanning deckboards. Remanufactured pallets were less strong and stiff due to nail holes in many of the used parts. The new, remanufactured, and Grade A GMA-type wood pallets performed similarly when tested for structural durability and should have comparable service life in use. Greater standardization of repair practices would result in performance improvements of repaired wood pallets.

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    Clarke, John W.; White, Marshall S.; Araman, Philip A. 2005. Comparative performance of new, repaired, and remanufactured 48- by 40-inch GMA-style wood pallets. Forest Products Journal. 55(12): 83-88

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