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Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in white oakAuthor(s): Everette D. Rast; John A. Beaton; David L. Sonderman; David L. Sonderman
Source: Res. Pap. NE-628 Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 24 p.
Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
Station: Northeastern Research Station
PDF: Download Publication (6.65 MB)
DescriptionTo properly classify or grade logs or trees, one must be able to correctly identify defect indicators and assess the effect of the underlying defect on possible end products. This guide assists the individual in identifying the surface defect indicator and also shows the progressive stages of the defect throughout its development for white oak. It illustrates and describes nine types of external defect indicators and associated defects that are particularly difficult to evaluate.
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CitationRast, Everette D.; Beaton, John A.; Sonderman, David L. 1989. Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in white oak. Res. Pap. NE-628 Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 24 p.
Keywordsdefect identification, photo guide, white oak, quality assessment
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- Survival of Quercus alba (White Oak) advance reproduction in small group and single tree openings.
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