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Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in yellow birchAuthor(s): Everette D. Rast; John A. Beaton; David L. Sonderman
Source: Res. Pap. NE-648. Radnor, PA: US. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 25 p.
Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
Station: Northeastern Research Station
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DescriptionTo properly classify or grade logs or trees, one must be able to correctly identify defect indicators and assess the effect of the underlying defect on possible end products. This guide assists the individual in identifying the surface defect indicator and shows the progressive stages of the defect throughout its development for yellow birch. Eleven types of external defect indicators and associated defects that are particularly difficult to evaluate are illustrated and described.
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CitationRast, Everette D.; Beaton, John A.; Sonderman, David L. 1991. Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in yellow birch. Res. Pap. NE-648. Radnor, PA: US. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 25 p.
Keywordsdefect identification, photo guide, yellow birch, quality assessment
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