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Mechanical properties of gypsum board at elevated temperaturesAuthor(s): S.M. Cramer; O.M. Friday; R.H. White; G. Sriprutkiat
Source: Fire and materials 2003 : 8th International Conference, January 2003, San Francisco, CA, USA. London : Interscience Communications Limited, c2003: pages 33-42.
Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
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DescriptionGypsum board is a common fire barrier used in house and general building construction. Recently, evaluation of the collapses of the World Trade Center Towers highlighted the potential role and failure of gypsum board in containing the fires and resisting damage. The use of gypsum board as primary fire protection of light-flame wood or steel construction is ubiquitous. Yet knowledge of the common engineering mechanical properties of this construction product is nearly nonexistent. Gypsum board is used in a prescriptive manner with little or no rational design. Summarized here are the results of a study examining the mechanical properties of Type X gypsum board at elevated temperatures. These properties are needed to contemplate the engineering design of gypsum board fire barriers. Tests were undertaken with a small oven within a test machine measuring mass loss, shrinkage, bending strength and modulus of elasticity at elevated temperatures to 400°C. The research showsthat shrinkage and calcination of the gypsum board appear complete between 20 to 30 minutes of exposure at a uniform 400°C. Only after complete calcination, where all moisture is driven off, does the bending strength approach 0. Strength appeared to decrease linearly with increasing temperature. Mass loss and modulus of elasticity exhibited similar trends with the greatest decreases occurring from 100°C to 200°C followed by more gradual decrease to 400°C. The surface paper plays significant stiffening and strengthening roles up to 60 minutes at temperatures as high as 200°C.
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CitationCramer, S.M.; Friday, O.M.; White, R.H.; Sriprutkiat, G. 2003. Mechanical properties of gypsum board at elevated temperatures. Fire and materials 2003 : 8th International Conference, January 2003, San Francisco, CA, USA. London : Interscience Communications Limited, c2003: pages 33-42.
KeywordsDrywall, high temperature effects, wallboard, materials at high temperature, elasticity, fire resistant materials, gypsum board, mechanical properties, bending strength, shrinkage
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