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    Studies have documented the gap between African American and white interaction with the natural environment: generally, African Americans are less likely than whites to visit wildland recreation areas or to participate in forest-based outdoor recreati0n.l Other studies also indicate that African Americans show less environmental concern, although more recent work indicates similar concern levels. These difference~h ave been found even when place of residence and access to wildland resources are controlled. Various explanations have been given to account for these differences, including ethnicity and marginality.' This chapter examines an aspect of marginality theory by examining African American labor in relationship to the land, specifically African American experiences working in southern forests in naval stores or turpentine operations.

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    Johnson, Cassandra Y.; Mcdaniel, Josh. 2004. Turpentine Negro. In: To Love the Wind and the Rain African Americans and environmental history. p. 50-62

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