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    Aerial surveys, brood beat outs, road surveys, and brood observations have been used to estimate numbers of waterfowl broods (M. E. Anderson, unpubl. reps., South Dakota Dep. Game, Fish, and Parks Fed. Aid Proj. W-17-R-7 and 8,1953, 1955; Bennett 1967). M. C. Hammond (unpubl. rep., U.S. Bur. Sport Fish and Wildl., 1970) summarized several brood survey techniques and suggested that combining 2 or more techniques might be desirable for increased accuracy in some detailed waterfowl studies. The objective of this study was to compare 2 techniques, flush counts and hidden observation counts, for censusing duck broods on livestock watering ponds (stock ponds).

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    Rumble, Mark A.; Flake, Lester D. 1982. A comparison of two waterfowl brood survey techniques. Journal of wildlife management. 46(4): 1048-1053


    aerial surveys, waterfowl, broods

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