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    Birds are sensitive indicators of vegetation conditions because they have relatively narrow habitat requirements (Martin and Finch 1995). Resident bird populations are relatively stable in winter (Ralph et al. 1993) and more closely associated with specific habitats than during summer (Huff et al. 1991, Manuwal and Huff 1987). Winter can be critical for birds in northern latitudes because food and cover have restricted distribution or abundance (Chambers and McComb 1997). If birds are year-residents, land managers must understand their winter habitat needs to insure that sufficient habitat exists to sustain populations (Morrison et al. 1985).

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    Rumble, Mark A.; Mills, Todd R.; Flake, Lester D. 1999. Habitat capability model for birds wintering in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Res. Pap. RMRS-RP-19. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Deptartment of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 11 p.


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    birds, winter, habitat, vegetation, wildlife management

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