Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Dixie Watts Reaves; Randall A. Kramer; Thomas P. Holmes
    Date: 1999
    Source: Environmental and Resource Economics 14: 365-383, 1999
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (186 KB)


    A three-way treatment design is used to compare contingent valuation response formats. Respondents are asked to value an endangered species (the red-cockaded woodpecker) and the restoration of its habitat following a natural disaster. For three question formats (open-ended, payment card, and double-bounded dichotomous choice), differences in survey response rates, item non-response rates, and protest bids are examined. Bootstrap techniques are used to compare means across formats and to explore differences in willingness to pay (WTP) distribution functions. Convergent validity is found in a comparison of mean WTP values, although some differences are apparent in the cumulative distribution functions. Differences across formats are also identified in item non-response rates and proportion of protest bids. Overall, the payment card format exhibits desirable properties relative to the other two formats.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Reaves, Dixie Watts; Kramer, Randall A.; Holmes, Thomas P. 1999. Does Question Format Matter? Valuing an Endangered Species. Environmental and Resource Economics 14: 365-383, 1999


    contingent valuation, endangered species, question format, red-cockaded woodpecker

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page