Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub

    Description

    Abstract: The combined effects of wind velocity and percent slope on flame length and angle were measured in an open-topped, tilting wind tunnel by burning fuel beds composed of vertical birch sticks and aspen excelsior. Mean flame length ranged from 0.08 to 1.69 m; 0.25 m was the maximum observed flame length for most backing fires. Flame angle ranged from -46o to 50o. Observed flame angle and length data were compared with predictions from several models applicable to fires on a horizontal surface. Two equations based on the Froude number underestimated flame angle for most wind and slope combinations; however, the data support theory that flame angle is a function of the square root of the Froude number. Discrepancies between data and predictions were attributed to measurement difficulties and slope effects. An equation based on Byram's convection number accounted for nearly half of the observed variation in flame angle (R2= 0.46). Byram's original equation relating fireline intensity to flame length overestimated flame length. New parameter estimates were derived from the data. Testing of observed fire behavior under a wider range of conditions and at field scale is recommended.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to psw_communications@fs.fed.us to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Weise, David R.; Biging, Gregory S. 1996. Effects of wind velocity and slope on flame properties. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 26, 1849-1858.

    Keywords

    flame slope

    Related Search


    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page