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    Three cultural treatments in a 23 (yes or no) factorial combination were applied during establishment of a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation: phosphorus and nitrogen fertilization at planting, herbicide applications in the first 3 years, and litter application in the first year. Both the herbicide and litter treatments reduced loblolly pine survival. After 12 years, foliar phosphorus concentrations were still greater n the fertilized plots (0.98 g/kg) than on nonfertilized plots (0.73 g/kg), and fertilization had increased soil potassium, carbon, and nitrogen concentrations, probably indirect responses to improving the soil environment and changes in the understory plant community. The fertilization and herbicide treatments resulted in taller loblolly pine trees and greater volume per tree throughout 15 years. The litter treatment was ineffective after 15 years, but the fertilization and litter treatment combination resulted in the greatest loblolly pine volume/ha.

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    Haywood, James D.; Sword Sayer, Mary Anne; Tiarks, Allan E. 2006. Intensive management of loblolly pine during establishment influences nutrition and productivity through 15 growing seasons. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-92. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. pp. 161-166

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