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    Native Americans used frequent burning of forests in the South's Piedmont to maintain pine-dominated stands, to favor oak regeneration over other hardwoods, and to keep understories open. From 1950 to 1990, fire occurred rarely in the region, resulting in a gradual replacement of pines with hardwoods. More recently, however, prescribed burning has been used much more extensively to restore open pine stands for key species such as the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Burning maintains open pine forests and also reduces fuel-loading and the likelihood of damaging wildfires.

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    Outcalt, Kenneth W. 2006. Managing composition of piedmont forests with prescribed fire. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-92. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. pp. 531

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