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    Author(s): Bryce A. RichardsonNed B. Klopfenstein; Steven J. Brunsfeld
    Date: 2002
    Source: Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 32(6): 1103-1107.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (664.85 KB)


    Maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) were used to examine the maternal genetic structure at three hierarchical spatial scales: fine scale, coarse scale, and interpopulation. These data were used to draw inferences into Clark’s nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana Wilson) seedcaching flight distances. Statistical analyses of fine-scale and coarse-scale distribution of haplotypes showed no apparent signs of deviation from a random pattern. This suggests nutcrackers are effective in dispersal of seed within populations, which is consistent with data gathered on nutcracker seed-caching behavior. However, the lack of homogeneity in haplotype frequencies among populations indicates nutcrackers rarely disperse seeds across large gaps (>20 km) in subalpine habitat.

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    Richardson, Bryce A.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Brunsfeld, Steven J. 2002. Assessing Clark's nutcracker seed-caching flights using maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA of whitebark pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 32(6): 1103-1107.


    Pinus albicaulis, Nucifraga columbiana, mitochondrial DNA, seed dispersal, forest management, Washington

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