The purpose of this research was to determine the extent of conflict between hikers and recreational stock users in a Sierra Nevada wilderness and to test the relative importance of various hypothetical predictors of conflict using multiple conflict measures. A survey of hikers and recreational stock users of the John Muir Wilderness in California revealed the ability to predict expression of conflict was high using measures of definition of place, specialization, focus of trip/expectations. and lifestyle tolerance. The strongest relationship, however, was between hypothesized determinants and attitudes hikers maintain toward encountering stock groups, rather than between hypothesized determinants and a goal interference measure of conflict.
Watson, Alan E.; Niccolucci, M. J.; Williams, Daniel R. 1994. The nature of conflict between hikers and recreational stock users in the John Muir wilderness. Journal of leisure research. 26(4): 372-385