Skip to Main Content
Due to a lapse in federal funding, this USDA website will not be actively updated. Once funding has been reestablished, online operations will continue.
Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone Gifford Pinchot National Forest.Author(s): Dale G. Brockway; Christopher Topik; Miles A. Hemstrom; William H. Emmingham
Source: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, R6-Ecol-130A-1983
Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
PDF: View PDF (3.9 MB)
DescriptionThe study of plant communities provides useful information about the environment in which they occur. Communities are a product of long-term interaction between factors in the physical environment and the organisms present. Environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, light and nutrients act as selective influences on plant populations, favoring species best adapted to a particular type of site. While random chance and genetic adaptation within species are also important in the development of community composition and structure, research by Waring (1969) and Zobel et al. (1976) has documented the relationship between plant communities and the complex of environmental factors which influence them.
- You may send email to email@example.com to request a hard copy of this publication.
- (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationBrockway, Dale G.; Topik, Christopher; Hemstrom, Miles A.; Emmingham, William H. 1983. Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone Gifford Pinchot National Forest. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, R6-Ecol-130A-1983. 122 p.
- Weather and tree growth associated with white fir mortality caused by fir engraver and roundheaded fir borer
- Damage from wind and other causes in mixed white fir-red fir stands adjacent to clearcuttings
- Differential susceptibility of white fir provenances to balsam twig aphid
XML: View XML