Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Thomas C. BrownPatricia A. Champ; Richard C. Bishop; Daniel W. McCollum
    Date: 1996
    Source: Land economics. 72(2): 152-166
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (404 KB)


    Seceral contingent valuation studies hace found that the open-ended format yields lower estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) than does the closed-ended, or dichotomous choice, format. In this study, WTP for a public encironmental good was estimated under four conditions: actual payment in response to open-ended and closed-ended requests, and hypothetical payment in response to open-ended and closed-ended requests. The experimental results, showing that the response format mattered far more for hypothetical than for actual payments, support conclusions about the reasons that the dichotomous choice format yields larger estimates of hypothetical WTP, conclusions that hinge on the hypothetical nature of contingent valuation.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Brown, Thomas C.; Champ, Patricia A.; Bishop, Richard C.; McCollum, Daniel W. 1996. Which response format reveals the truth about donations to a public good?. Land economics. 72(2): 152-166


    contingent valuation, willingness to pay, response format, donations, public goods

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page