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    Author(s): Elizabeth J. Johnson; Peter Koch
    Date: 1972
    Source: Wood Science, Vol. 4(3): 154-162
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (1.66 MB)


    When 1-, 2-, and 3-mm cubes of wood were placed on this sample pan of differential scanning calorimeter and the pan heated at a constant rate from 150 to 513oC. in an air atmosphere, all 144 specimens formed an endothermic peak (all specimen averaged 345oC.) at which the rate of heat dissipation exceeded the rate of heat absorption; the peak corresponded to the evolution of volatiles and cube charring. On further heating, most latewood cubes evolved heat until glowing ignition occurred (498 to 513oC.). With earlywood, a secondary reaction of unknown nature stopped the exothermic reaction, so that the exotherm changed at 434o. to an endothern a second endothermic peak occurred at 480o.; the second peak in turn yielded to a renewed exothermic reaction followed by glowing ignition at 490 to 513oC. or by degradation to ash without ignition. These values are overall averaged for scan rated of 10 and 20oC./min/ and for wet and dry wood both extracted and unextracted. A 20oC./min. scan rate (compared to a 10oC. rate) delayed endothermic and exothermic peaks from 14 to 19oC.; saturation of cubes delayed peak temperatures 5 to 15oC.; extraction increased the temperature of the first endotherm by 4oC and the temperature of the second earlywood endotherm by 7oC. The first exothermic peak temperature (434oCoC.) for earlywood was positively correlated with cube size. Because many specimens decomposed without glowing, conclusions about glow initiation temperatures and glow duration during dynamic tests are hard to frame. Ignition temperature was lowed in 3-mm, initially dry earlywood cubes (494oC. For extracted and unextracted specimens heated at 10oC./min.). In dynamic tests, glow duration was shortest in Glow 1-mm cubes (6 sec.); generally speaking, small, small earlywood cubes failed to ignite at all. Glow duration was longest for 3-mm latewood cubes (106 sec). In static tests at 513oC., elapsed time before glow initiation was shortes with 1-mm, initially dry, extractive-free cubes of earlywood (Average 6 sec.); elapsed time was longest with 3-mm, initially saturated, unextracted cubes of latewood (average 189 sec.). Glow time was maximum for 3-mm, initially dry, extactive-free cubes of latewood (Average 112 sec.); it was minimum for 1-mm, initially saturated cubes of earlywood (Average 3.5 sec.).

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    Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Koch, Peter. 1972. Thermal reactions of small loblolly pine cubes heated on one face in an air atmosphere. Wood Science, Vol. 4(3): 154-162

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