Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): F. Thomas Ledig; Miguel A. Capó-Arteaga; Paul D. Hodgskiss; Hassan Sbay; Celestino Flores-López; M. Thompson Conkle; Basilio Bermejo-Velázquez
    Date: 2001
    Source: American Journal of Botany 88(11):1977-1987
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (738 KB)


    Weeping piñon (Pinus pinceana) has a restricted and fragmented range, trees are widely scattered within populations, and reproduction is limited. Nevertheless, genetic diversity was high; based on 27 isozyme loci in 18 enzyme systems, unbiased expected heterozygosity averaged 0.174. Differentiation also was high (FST = 0.152), reflecting isolation between southern, central, and northern fragments of the range. Among populations in the northern fragment, FST was only 0.056, and the number of migrants per generation (Nm) was 4.21, which should preclude fixation. Nm between central and southern populations or between them and populations in the northern fragment was lower, 0.99-1.66, indicating a degree of genetic isolation. Multilocus outcrossing rates (tm) ranged from 0.836 in the south to 0.897 in the north. Therefore, selfing is low but statistically significant. The equilibrium inbreeding coefficient (Fe) calculated from tm was in good agreement with observed inbreeding coefficients, suggesting that weeping piñon may be near equilibrium with respect to inbreeding and selection against selfed trees. Weeping piñion was variable at all loci polymorphic in maxipiñon (Pinus marimartinezii) and, therefore, qualifies as a possible progenitor of maxipiñion. Because of the high level of diversity, reasonable levels of gene flow within the northern fragment of weeping piñon's range, high rates of outcrossing, and, perhaps, only weak selection against inbred trees, protection in reserves would be a viable option for conservation.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Ledig, F. Thomas; Capó-Arteaga, Miguel A.; Hodgskiss, Paul D.; Sbay, Hassan; Flores-López, Celestino; Conkle, M. Thompson; Bermejo-Velázquez, Basilio 2001. Genetic diversity and the mating system of a rare Mexican Piñon, Pinus pinceana, and a comparison with Pinus maximartinezii (Pinaceae). American Journal of Botany 88(11):1977-1987


    Endangered species, fitness, fragmentation, genetic distance, genetic structure, isozymes, pollen allele frequencies, selfing

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page