Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Mark E. Fenn; Richard Haeuber; Gail S. Tonnesen; Jill S. Baron; Susanne Grossman-Clarke; Diane Hope; Daniel A. Jaffe; Scott Copeland; Linda Geiser; Heather M. Rueth; James O. Sickman
    Date: 2003
    Source: BioScience 53(4):391-403
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.0 MB)


    Nitrogen (N) deposition in the western United States ranges from 1 to 4 kilograms (kg) per hectare (ha) per year over much of the region to as high as 30 to 90 kg per ha per year downwind of major urban and agricultural areas. Primary N emissions sources are transportation, agriculture, and industry. Emissions of N as ammonia are about 50% as great as emissions of N as nitrogen oxides. An unknown amount of N deposition to the West Coast originates from Asia. Nitrogen deposition has increased in the West because of rapid increases in urbanization, population, distance driven, and large concentrated animal feeding operations. Studies of ecological effects suggest that emissions reductions are needed to protect sensitive ecosystem components. Deposition rates are unknown for most areas in the West, although reasonable estimates are available for sites in California, the Colorado Front Range, and central Arizona. National monitoring networks provide long-term wet deposition data and, more recently, estimated dry deposition data at remote sites. However, there is little information for many areas near emissions sources.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Fenn, Mark E.; Haeuber, Richard; Tonnesen, Gail S.; Baron, Jill S.; Grossman-Clarke, Susanne; Hope, Diane; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Copeland, Scott; Geiser, Linda; Rueth, Heather M.; Sickman, James O. 2003. Nitrogen emissions, deposition, and monitoring in the western United States. BioScience 53(4):391-403


    Urbanization, animal feeding operations, hotspots, policy implications, regional haze

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page