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    Author(s): Deborah J. Chavez; Nancy E. Knap; Deanne G. McCollum
    Date: 2004
    Source: Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 22(3):1-21
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (1.6 MB)


    The purpose of this researchwas to evaluate recreationists' comprehension of International Symbols used on the Angeles and San Bernardino National Forests in southern California. Data were collected from 262 recreationists during the summer months 2002. Bilingual teams administered the survey using instruments available in English and Spanish. The 20 International Symbols used in the study included 13 from on-line sources and seven Forest-produced symbols. Each unique response for the symbols was coded for level of correctness by two independent coders using the International Standards Organization (ISO) standard adapted for this study. Judges placed responses into seven "levels of correctness" categories: 1) correct understanding of the symbol is certain; 2) correct undentanding of the symbol is likely; 3) correct understanding of the symbol is marginally likely; 4) the meaning which is conveyed is the opposite to that intended; 5) the response is wrong; 6) the response given is "do not know" and 7) no response is given.

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    Chavez, Deborah J.; Knap, Nancy E.; McCollum, Deanne G. 2004. Assessing national forest visitors'' comprehension of international symbols for communicating outdoor recreation messages. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 22(3):1-21


    Communication, international symbols, outdoor recreation, race and ethicity, recreation signs

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