Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): William T. Zawacki; Allan Marsinko; J. Michael Bowker
    Date: 2000
    Source: Forest Science, Vol. 46(4): 496-506
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (75.2 KB)


    Increased emphasis on sustainable resource management in forestry has effectuated a demand for various nontimber values. Nonconsumptive wildlife recreation is an important nontimber service produced on forest and rangeland. Travel cost models and data from the 1991 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife-Associated Recreation are used to estimate the demand and value for nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation in the United States. Resulting welfare measures are shown to be sensitive to assumptions about the cost of travel time, pecuniary costs, and functional form. Consumer surplus estimates range from 18.7 to 327.5 dollars per trip, while aggregate estimates of consumer surplus resulting from access to nonconsumptive wildlife recreation range from 5.8 to 66.4 billion dollars annually. Availability of information about nonparticipants allows comparison of truncated and untruncated demand models. Contrary to previous findings, consumer surplus estimates from truncated models are smaller than for untruncated counterparts. Trip demand is found to be adversely affected by per capita decreases in forest and rangeland. Models include interaction variables to avoid forcing hunting or fishing as potential substitutes for the large number of people who do not hunt or fish. Hunting and nonconsumptive wildlife recreation are complementary activities, while the results for fishing are mixed.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Zawacki, William T.; Marsinko, Allan; Bowker, J. Michael. 2000. A travel cost analysis of nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation in the United States. Forest Science, Vol. 46(4): 496-506


    Nontimber values, wildlife recreation, travel cost, truncation, consumer surplus, substitute activities

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page