Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): John G. Cook; Larry L. Irwin; Larry D. Bryant; Robert A. Riggs; Jack Ward Thomas
    Date: 2004
    Source: In: Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 708-726
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.2 MB)


    A great deal of big game research occurred in western North America during the 1960s through the 1980s, and many advances in our knowledge occurred as a result. Timber harvest increased during this period in many localities, and this trend was often perceived to threaten ungulate populations (Hieb 1976). Thus, it is not surprising that appreciable research in this era focused on relations between forestry and elk (Cervus elaphus). Logging's most apparent immediate effect is modification of the forest overstory, and a concept arose that was new, at least in the West, for elk-dense forest cover moderates the effects of harsh weather sufficiently to confer survival and reproductive advantages in the winter, in particular, and during the summer. Forest stands that confer such advantages are referred to as thermal cover.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Cook, John G.; Irwin, Larry L.; Bryant, Larry D.; Riggs, Robert A.; Thomas, Jack Ward. 2004. Thermal cover needs of large ungulates: a review of hypothesis tests. In: Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 708-726

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page