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    Elk (Cervus elaphus) populations in western North America have been intensively managed for the past century. The species' popular appeal as an animal for hunting and viewing, and its potential to damage agricultural crops and to compete with livestock make it a species that is closely scrutinized by managers and many public interest groups. Today, elk continue to have significant ecological, cultural and economic values. For example, the species provides substantial revenue for rural communities from hunting and viewing. Since the 1960s, elk in some areas of the western United States cause economic damage to farming and ranching operations. Elk managers spent considerable effort to maintain populations at levels compatible with these private land uses, while also striving to provide sufficient hunter opportunities on public land to meet recreational demands.

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    Johnson, Bruce K.; Wisdom, Michael J.; Cook, John G. 2004. Issues of elk productivity for research and management. In: Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 551-571

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