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    Author(s): Michael J. Wisdom; Alan A. Ager; Haiganoush K. Preisler; Norman J. Cimon; Bruce K. Johnson
    Date: 2004
    Source: In: Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 531-550
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.4 MB)


    Off-road recreation is increasing rapidly in the United States, especially on public land (Havlick 2002, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service 2004). An expansive network of roads provides easy access to much public land, which facilitates off-road uses in the form of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), horses, mountain bikes and foot traffic. No research, however, has evaluated effects of these off-road activities on vertebrate species in a comparative and experimental manner (see review by Gaines et al. 2003). One recent study (Taylor and Knight 2003a) evaluated bison (Bison bison), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) responses to mountain biking and hiking. This study, however, did not include ATV or horseback riding, nor did it include experimental controls needed to assess cause-effect relations.

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    Wisdom, Michael J.; Ager, Alan A.; Preisler, Haiganoush K.; Cimon, Norman J.; Johnson, Bruce K. 2004. Effects of off-road recreation on mule deer and elk. In: Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 531-550

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