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    Elk (Cervus elaphus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) have overlapping ranges on millions of acres of forests and rangelands in western North America. Accurate prediction of their spatial distributions within these ranges is essential to effective land-use planning, stocking allocation and population management (Wisdom and Thomas 1 996). Many habitat variables influence the distributions of the two ungulates, making predictions a challenging and sometimes daunting task for resource managers (Johnson et al. 1996, Ager et al. 2004).

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    Wisdom, Michael J.; Cimon, Norman J.; Johnson, Bruce K.; Garton, Edward O.; Thomas, Jack Ward. 2004. Spatial partitioning by mule deer and elk in relation to traffic. In: Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 509-530

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