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    Author(s): Michael J. Wisdom; Bruce K. Johnson; Martin Vavra; Jennifer M. Boyd; Priscilla K. Coe; John G. Kie; Alan A. Ager; Norman J. Cimon
    Date: 2004
    Source: In: Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 727-758
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (2.2 MB)


    Forested habitats for cattle and elk (Cervus elaphus) in the western United States have changed substantially in response to intensive timber management during the latter half of the 20th century. Consequently, the subject of how elk and other ungulates respond to timber management is a high-profile, long-standing issue that continues to be studied and debated (Lyon and Christensen 2002). The need for additional knowledge about effects of timber management on cattle and elk remains high, given the fact that timber management continues to affect nearly all cattle and elk ranges on national forests in the western United States (Wisdom and Thomas 1996, Lyon and Christensen 2002).

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    Wisdom, Michael J.; Johnson, Bruce K.; Vavra, Martin; Boyd, Jennifer M.; Coe, Priscilla K.; Kie, John G.; Ager, Alan A.; Cimon, Norman J. 2004. Cattle and elk responses to intensive timber harvest. In: Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 727-758

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